Sunday, January 20, 2013

Business Applications - E-Business Systems

Corporate Business Systems

The opposite of public opinion, e-business is not the same as e-commerce. E-Business is much broader in scope, more than just a transaction, because it leads to significant use, the network, with a combination of technology, as well as other forms of electronic communication, to enable any type of business activity.
Introducing the world's business applications, rapid changes of information technology, which is increasingly characterized by what is commonly referred to as e-business applications. Remember that e-business is the use of the Internet, and network and other information technology, to support e-commerce, and communication and cooperation of the company, and the various processes that run over the Web, both in corporate networks and in the customers, and business partners . E-Business E-Commerce includes involving the sale and purchase, as well as marketing products and services, and information through the Internet and other networks ..

Cross Functional Company Application

Many companies are now using information technology to develop, cross-functional integrated enterprise system, which crosses many boundaries of traditional business functions in order to reengineer and improve critical business processes, across all functions across the company. These organizations, see the cross-functional enterprise systems as a strategic way to use IT in a variety of information resources, and improve the efficiency and effectiveness of business processes, and develop strategic relationships with customers, suppliers, and business partners.

Many companies that have moved, from mainframe-based legacy systems, the application client / server cross-functional. This usually involves the installation of Enterprise Resource Planning software (ERP), Supply Chain Management (SCM), and Customer Relationship Management (CSR), from SAP America, PeopleSoft, Oracle, and other companies. Instead of focusing on the information processing needs, from a variety of business functions, this kind of software company focused to support a diverse group of integrated business processes involved in the business operations.

Enterprise Architecture Application

Enterprise application architecture overview that illustrates the relationship between cross-functional enterprise applications, many of the company or the widely installed today. This architecture does not provide details or blueprint, a complete application, but provides conceptual frameworks to help you visualize the various basic components, processes and interfaces of the major e-business applications, and their relation to one and other. Application architecture also demonstrate the role played by business systems in support of our customers, suppliers, partners and employees.

Wednesday, January 16, 2013

TCP / IP - Alternative Bandwidth

TCP / IP - Alternative Bandwidth 

Kecepatn communications, kaapasitas telecommunications networks, can be classified according to the Bandwidth. Bandwidth is the frequency range of telecommunications channels. Bandwidth determines the maximum transmission rate of the network. Speed, and capacity of the data transmission rate is usually measured in bytes per second (bps). This is sometimes called the baud rate (taken from the name of the French inventor, JME Baudor), although the actual baud is a measure of the change in the signal transmission path. 

Narrow-Band Channel generally provides high transmission rate is low, only up to 64 Kbps, but now can provide up to 2 Mbps. The channel is usually a line pair, which is not protected, which is used for telephone communication, and for the communication of data by modem, computer, and other equipment. Channel medium speed (meddium-band) using path-protected pair for transmission speeds of up to 100 MBps. 

Line Broadband provides high-speed transmission rate, the interval between 256 000 bps to beberpa billion bps. Generally, these lines using short-wave, optical fiber, or satellite transmission. Examples are communication channels T1, at 1.54 million bps or T3, at 45 MBps, up satellite communication channels, 100 Mbps, and anatar 52 MBps and 10 Gbps for fiber-optic lines. Rouse is currently being upgraded PT.TELKOM INDONESIA the use of optical subscriber line, so customers can enjoy drawing at home video, telephone, internet at the same time at a very high speed. Access technology used to use MSAN (Multi Service Access Node), which is connected directly to the Main Frame Server Metro-Ethernet (high speed backbone transmission) supported Softwitch (for ID phone number or mobile phone), IP TV Server (cable TV services ) and BRAS (speedy service). 

TCP / IP - Alernatif Switching 

Regular telephone services rely on circuit switching, where a switch make a circuit, to establish connections between the sender and receiver. This connection remains open until the communication session is completed. In message switching, a message is sent within a specified time, switching from one device to other devices. 
Packet switching involves the distribution of communication messages, into the fixed, or variable called packets. For example, the X-25 protocol, the package along 128 characters, tamun its frame relay technologies vary in length. Dikjalankan general packet switching network, the carrier-added (value-added carrier), which uses a computer, da other communications processors, packet switching for the control process, and send packets to berbagaipemakai in the network. 

The initial packet switching network, is the X-25. Prokol X-25, the standard that governs intrnasional operations, a widely used, but it is a packet switching protocol which is also popular, and is widely used by large companies to WAN. Frame Relay is much faster than the X-25, and more able to cope with the flow of dense telecommunication LAN, which are interconnected in a network client / server companies. ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) is a new cell switching technology, high capacity. ATM Switch solves voice, video, and data into cells other remains sebesar53 bytes (48 bytes of data and 5 bytes of control information), and megarahkan to its destination in the network. ATM networks are being developed, many companies memputuhkan high capacity multimedia capabilities, for data communications, voice and video.

Tuesday, January 15, 2013

Telecommunication Network Topology

Telecommunication Network Topology 

There are some basics of topology, or the structure of the network, the telecommunications network. Three basic topologies used in WAN. And LAN. Stars networks, binds to the end user's computer, to a central computer. Ring networks, binds local computer processors, the ring, with a more equal basis. Bus Network, is a network, which uses local processor bus with, or communication channels together. Variations ring network, is Mesh Network, which uses a direct communication channel to interconnect some or all of the computers in the ring. 

Network client / server, it can use a combination approach star, ring, and bus. Clearly, more centralized star network, while the ring and bus networks, has a decentralized approach. However, it is not always the case, for example a computer center in a star configuration, can act as a switch, or computer modifiers messages, which regulates data communications anatar autonomous local computer. Network Star, Ring, and Bus, differ in terms of performance, reliability, and cost. Pure star network, considered to be reliable as a ring network, since other computers in the ring, relying on a central computer. If the central computer is damaged, there is no communication capabilities and backup processing and local computer is disconnected. This situation is usually resolved ddengan put multiprocessor architecture, which has the ability to tolerate faults. 

Protocols and Network Architectures 

Until a moment ago, there is a lack standards for interfaces, including hardware, siftware, and communication channels of the telecommunications network. The situation has hindered the use of telecommunications, increases costs, and reduces the efficient and effective. In response, national and international telecommunications manufacturers, has developed standards called protocols, and a master plan called the network architecture, to support the development of data communications network, which is more reliable. 
Protocols are the rules and procedures for controlling the communication in the network. Each device manufacturing has different protocols, therefore it is necessary for a standard as I would have to say the following after this. 

Network architecture; purpose network architectures, is to Promote an open telecommunications environment and a simple, flexible, and efficient. This is done using standard protocols, interfaces, software, hardware and communications standards, and standard multilevel interface design, between the end user and computer systems. 

OSI Models 

International Standards Organisation (ISO) has developed a model of seven layers, the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI), to become the standard model for network architecture. The division of data communications functions into seven (7) different layers, encourages the development of modular network architecture, which helps the development, operation, and maintenance of telecommunications networks, complex. 

TCP / IP Internet Models 

Internet protocol telecommunications systems, which have been widely used, so it is now accepted as the network architecture. Package internet protocol called Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol, which is abbreviated as TCP / IP. TCP / IP consists of 5 (five) layer protocol that can be connected to the 7 (seven) layers in the OSI architecture. TCP / IP is used by the Internet and all intranet and extranet. Many companies, and other organizations, changing wide area networks, and client / server, the TCP / IP technology, which is now often referred to, IP networks.

Telecommunications Software

Telecommunications Software

Software is a key component of all telecommunications networks. Network management software, and telecommunications, can be placed in computers, servers, mainframes, and communication processors as multiplekserdan router. The program is used by network servers and other computers in the network, to manage network performance. Programs, program management functions such menjalanka, client computers automatically check for activity input / outputs, prioritize requests from clients and data communication terminals, as well as detecting and correcting transmission errors and other network problems.

For example, the frequent use of mainframe-based WAN monitoring teleprosesing (Teleprocessing Monitor, TP). Control System identification of customer (customer identification control system, CICS) for IBM mainframe is a general example. Servers in the local area and other networks often rely on network operating systems, such as Novell Netware, or operating systems such as UNIX, Linux, or Microsoft Windows for network management. Many software suppliers also offer software as a telecommunications medium-scale devices (middleware), which can help different networks to communicate with each other.

Telecommunications functions built in Microsoft Wondows and other operating systems provide a variety of communications support services. For example, working with communications processors (eg, modem) to connect and disconnect and set communication parameters such as speed, how, and transmission.

Network Management

Manjemen packet networks such as telecommunication network operations and monitor prioritize transmission channel (route and switch) messages, the terminals in the network, and form a waiting line (queue) of the transmission request. This package also detects and corrects errors transmsi, log statistics, from network activity, and protect network resources from unauthorized access.

Examples of network management functions are:

Flow management; Mengelolasumber power and current in order to avoid network congestion and optimize service levels for users.
Security as a major concern of the current network management. Thus, the telecommunications software menyediaakan authentication, encryption, firewalls and auditing functions, and enforce security policies.
Surveillance Network; Settlement issues and network monitoring to network administrators informed about potential problems before they occur.
Capacity Planning; Survey of network resources and the flow pattern and the need to meet the needs of the network users are constantly growing and changing.

Monday, January 14, 2013

Telecommunications Processor

Telecommunications Processor

Telecommunications processors such as modems, multiplexer, switches, and routers, perform various support functions, such as computers and other equipment in the telecommunications network.


Modem is the most common telecommunication processor. Modem converts the digital signal from the computer, or terminal transmission, at one end of analog telecommunication frequencies that can be transmitted by using a regular phone line. Modem on the other end of the communication channel, change back into digital form at the receiving terminal. This process is called modulation and demodulation, and the word modem stands Edua word. Modem is available in various forms, including the smallest unit of a separate, circuit board mounted, and a modem card that can be removed from the laptop. Most modems also support various telecommunications functions, such as control of transmission errors, penelponan, and automatic acceptance, and fax capabilities.

Modem is used for telephone network was originally designed for analog signals (electromagnetic waves), such as those produced by the human voice on the phone. Because the data from the computer in digital form (pulse voltage), there should be a tool to convert digital signals into analog transmission frequency appropriate and vice versa. However, the digital network, which uses only a digital signal, and does not require conversion of analog / digital is increasingly common. Because many modem also perform various telecommunications support functions, such as modem digital equipment is still used in digital networks.


Multiplexer is a communications processor that enables a single communications channel to carry simultaneous data transmissions from many terminals. This is achieved in two ways. In this, the frequency division multiplex (FDM), effectively dividing the channel multiplexer, high-speed channel Cleaner be much lower. In a time division multiplexer (TDM), multiplexer can share time digunakanoleh every terminal in the high-speed channel into time frames, or time slots, which are very short.

Internet-Based Processors

Telecommunications networks interconnected by a special purpose processor communication called internet-based processor (internetwork processors), such as switches, routers, hubs, and gateways. Switch is a communications processor that connects between telecommunications circuits in the network. When this switch is available in various versions with network management capabilities. Router communication processor is connected each intelligent network based on different rules or protocols, so that messages can be sent to its destination telecommunications. Hub telecom is changing port processor. More advanced version of hubs and switches provide automatic change between connections, called port for shared access to network resources. Workplace, servers, printers, and other network resources generally associated with the port. A network communication architecture using different interconnected using telecommunications processors called gateways. All equipment ni essential to provide easy access and connections between the various LAN and WAN, which is part of da internet client / server network in many companies.

Sunday, January 13, 2013

Wireless Technology - Advanced

PCS and Cellular System

System pager, PCS phone, and mobile radio communications using multiple technologies. However, everything is divided into several geographical era of small areas, or cells, the area is generally from one to several square miles. Each cell has a low-power transmitter or radio antenna to broadcast a call from one cell to the other. Computers and other communications processors coordinate and megendalikan transmission to and from mobile users, as they move from the area to other areas.

Mobile phone system, have long used analog communications technology beroperasipada frequency 800 to 900 MHz. The new cellular systems use digital technology, which provides security and greater capacity, and ancillary services such as voice mail, paging, messaging, and caller ID. This capability is also available on the phone system PCS (personal communication service). PCS operates at a frequency of 1900 MHz using digital technology related to digital cellular. However, the PCS telephone system costs much less to run and use, rather than cellular systems and require less power consumption.
Wireless LAN

Cabling in an office or building for an advanced local area network often a difficult and costly task. The buildings are older, often do not have the channel for coaxial cable, double or extra cables and lines in the newer building, may not have enough space to put additional cable. Repair wiring errors and damage is often difficult and expensive, the same as with the relocation of the workplace LAN, and other components. One solution to this is an issue with installing Wireless LAN, using one of several wireless technologies. For example, high-frequency radio technology similar to digital cellular and a low frequency radio technology called Spread Spectrum (Spectrum spead).

The use of Wireless LANs grows rapidly with the implementation of the new high-speed technologies. For example, a wireless radio wave technology open standard, called IEEE.802.11b, or more popularly didesebut, WiFi (Wireless Fidelity). WiFi is much faster (11 MBps) and cheaper than a standard ethernet cable-based LAN technologies. Developing IEEE.802.11.g (54 MBps), and the longer the higher speed.
Wireless Web

Wireless Access to the internet, intranet and extranet grow along with the increasing number of Web-based information tools. Smart Telephone, Pager, PDA, and other communications equipment, an advanced client has a very thin (very thin Client) in a wireless network. Agreement on standarprotokol wireless applications (Wireless Application Personal, WAP), which encourages the development of many wireless services and Web applications. The telecommunications industry continues elaborated third generation wireless technologies (3G) which aims to improve wireless transmission speeds to enable multimedia applications and video on mobile devices.

Wireless technology.

Wireless technology.

Wireless telecommunications technology, controlling radio waves, microwaves, infrared, and light pulses to transmit digital communications, wireless communication between devices. Wireless technologies including terrestrial microwave, satellite communications, cellular and PCS telephone and pager systems, mobile data radios, Wireless LAN, Wireless Internet and other technologies. Each technology uses certain jangkaun, in the electromagnetic spectrum (in Mega Hertz), from electromagnetic frequencies mentioned by national regulatory agencies, to reduce interference, and encourage efficient telecommunications.

Micro wave terrestrial.

Micro wave terrestrial microwave systems involve, attached to the earth, which sends radio signals at high speed, the path between the receiving station, which is located approximately 30 miles. Microwave antenna, usually placed on top of buildings, monuments, hill, or mountain top. This antenna has often we see in many places in this country. The antenna is still a popular medium for metropolitan area networks, and remote.

Satellite Communications,

Satellite communications also use short-wave radio as a medium for telecommunication. Generally, communications satellites that orbit farther away from the earth's surface (high-earth-orbit, HEO), placed in orbit geosinkronis, located approximately 22.000 miles above the equator. Satellite gets power from solar panels, and can send a signal, a short wave of several hundred million bytes per second. Serves as a satellite broadcasters, for the communication signal transmitted from the earth station. Earth stations use dish antenna to direct short wave signals to a satellite, which strengthens and sends back the signal to the other work on earth, located thousands of miles away.

Communications satellites originally used to transmit voice and video. However, the current satellites are also used to send large amounts of data at high speed. Leh due to delays caused by distance, the satellite is not suitable for direct or interactive processing. Satellite communications system is run by the few companies in the world.

Various other satellite technology, is being implemented to improve the global business communications. For example, many companies use a small dish network called "a very small open terminal" (very-small-aperture terminal VSAT), for connecting them to the workplace store the remote through the radio. Other satellite networks using satellites are orbiting close to earth's surface (low-earth-orbit, LEO), which orbits at an altitude of only 500 miles above the Earth's surface

Telecommunications Media,

Telecommunications Media,

Telecommunications channels using a variety of telecommunications media. This includes cable, pairs, double angle cable, and fiber optic cables, which are physically connecting devices on the network. Also includes short wave terrestrial (terrestrial microwave), satellite communication systems, cellular phones, as well as LAN and packet radio, which are used, microwaves and other radio waves. In addition, there is also an infrared system, which uses infrared light to send and receive data.

Pair Cables

Public telephone cable, which consists of copper wires, twisted pairs (cable pair), is a telecommunications media the most widely used. These cables are used for communications networks around the world, in various forms, and is widely used in home phone systems, and office, as well as in many LAN and WAN. Speed transmission, between 2 million bytes per second (the guards) to 100 million bytes per second (with protection).

Coaxial Cables.

Coaxial cable consists of copper-aluminum wires datau, powerful and packed with a barrier, which serves as an insulator and protector. Penutupkabel insulation and minimize interference, the signals carried by the cable. Group of coaxial cable, the cable can be united in order to be easily installed. This high-quality paths, can be placed in the basement, or in the bottom of lakes, and oceans. Coaxial cable enabling, high speed data transmission, (from 200 million to 500 million bytes per second - 200 MBps to 500 MBps). And more widely used than the cable pairs, in a metropolitan area, for cable TV systems, and for computer connection, a short distance, and peripheral equipment. Coaxial cables are also used in many office buildings and other workplaces to the LAN.

Fiber Optic Cables.

Fiber optic cables are composed of one or more hair-thin filament, fiber glass wrapped with a protective jacket. Optical fibers, can produce a glowing pulse elemn (photons) produced by the laser beam, with a transmission rate of up to trillions of bytes per second (Terabyte per second or Tbps). This, about a hundred times larger than coaxial cable, and a thousand times better than cable pairs. Fiber optic cables provide substantial unkuran, and weight reduction, as well as increasing the speed and capacity, greater. Optical fiber cable diameter half inhi, can carry more than 500,000 channels, compared with only about 5,500 channels on a standard coaxial cable.

Fiber optic cables are not affected or mengasilkan electromagnetic radiation, therefore, the optical fiber can be placed on the same cable. Fiber optic cables do not need to pengulanagn signal transmission, unlike copper cable media,. Fiber optics also has a data error rate lower than other media, and more difficult to be tapped, rather than electrical wires. Optical fiber cables, have been installed in different parts of the world, and is expected to replace other communication media in many applications.

The new optical technologies such as dense wave division multiplex (dense wave multiplexing, DWDM), can share a glass fiber to 40 channels, allowing each piece to address the 5 million calls. DWDM technology in the future is expected to be 1.000 mebagi each fiber channel, so each strand, can handle 122 million calls. In addition, a newly developed optical router will send the optical signal, 2.500 miles without needing retransmission, thus eliminating the need for repetition every 370 miles to produce a return signal.

Types of Telecommunications Networks.

Types of Telecommunications Networks.

There are different types of tissues, which serves as the telecommunications infrastructure, to the Internet and corporate intranets and extranets internet based. However, from the perspective of the end user, there are only a few basic types, such as wide area networks and local area networks, as well as peer-to-peer, client-server, and network computing.

Wide Area Network (WAN)
Telecommunications network covering a wide geographical area called a Wide Area Network (WAN). Network that covers a broad area of the city or metropolitan (Metropolitan Area Network, MAN) may also be in this category. Such an extensive network, it has become necessary to perform daily activities, from the many businesses and organisasipemerintah, as well as end users. For example, the WAN is used by many multinational companies, sending and receiving information among employees, customers, suppliers, and other organizations in various cities, regions, countries around the world.

Local Area Network (LAN)
Connect computers and other information processing equipment at the point of limited physical area, such as offices, classrooms, buildings, manufacturing plants, or other workplace. LAN has become something common, for many organizations, to provide telecommunications network, which connects the end user to the offices, departments, and other working groups.
LAN using a variety of telecommunications media, such as telephone wires, coaxial cable, or even wireless radio and infrared systems. To interconnect microcomputers with perferal workplace computer. To communicate within the network, each computer usually has a circuit board called the Network Interface. Most LAN, using electric, a higher power, with a large capacity hard disk, called the File Server or Server Network, which contains a network operating system, which controls the communication and resource sharing network. For example, the distribution of copies of data files and software packages, kr mikrikomputer others in the network and controlling access to a shared laser printers and other network peripherals.

Virtual Private Network (VPN)
Many organizations use VPN to establish secure intranets and extranets, Virtual Private Network (VPN) is a secure network that uses the Internet as its backbone, but rely on firewalls, encryption, and other security features for internet and intranet connection, and a connection with the company other. So, for example, the VPN will allow companies to use the Internet, to secure its intranet, between branch offices, in a distant temapat manufacturing plant.

Client - Server Network (CSN)
Network Client-Server architecture has become the dominant information in enterprise computing. In a client-server network, end-user computer work, is the client. They are connected to a local area network, and share processing applications with a network server. (Client and server arrangement is often called Client-Server Architecture two ties). Local area networks, also associated with the LAN. And wide area networks, server, and client work.

A trend that continues to happen is, the reduction in size (downsizing), large computer systems by replacing, with a client-server network. For example, client-server network of multiple LANs interconnected, can megganti network, based manframe great with plenty of end-user terminals. This usually requires a complicated undertaking, and expensive to install new software applications, to replace the software business information systems, based on older traditional mainframe, which is now called the Legacy System. Client-server networks, is considered more economical and flexible than legacy systems to meet the needs of end users, workgroups, and business units, and more adaptable, the computational workload diversity.

Network Computing.
The high dependency on computer hardware, software, and data from the Internet, intranets, and extranets, and other networks have stressed that for many pegguna "Networking is the user". Network Computing, or the concept of Network Centric network view, the central computing resources, from computing environment.

Saturday, January 12, 2013

Alternative Telecommunication Network.

Alternative Telecommunication Network.

Telecommunications is a field of information systems technology, which is rapidly changing and highly technical. Most business practitioners, it does not require detailed knowledge, the technical characteristics. However, you need to understand some important characteristics, from the basic components of the telecommunications network. This understanding will help you, to participate effectively in decision-making.

Telecommunications Network Model.

Before discussing alternative telecommunications networks, we need to understand the basic components of the telecommunications network. Generally, telecommunications network is an arrangement, in which the sender sends a message, to the receiver, through a channel consisting of a medium. These components are:

a). Terminal: such as networked personal computers, computer networks, or equipment information. Each device input / output, which uses telecommunications network, to send or receive data, Adala terminals, including phones and various computer terminals.

b). Telecommunications Processors: a supportive, sending and receiving data between the terminal and the computer. This equipment such as modems, switches, and routers, perform a variety of functions, control and support in telecommunication networks. For example, the equipment, change the data, from digital to analog, or vice versa, encode, and eliminate code data, as well as controlling the speed and efficiency of the flow of communication between the computer and the terminal, in the network.

c). Channels of communication: the place where the data is sent and received. Telecommunication channel can use a combination of multiple media, such as copper wire, coaxial cable, or fiber optic cable, or use wireless systems, such as short wave, satellite communications, radio and cellular systems, for interconnecting components, from telecommunications networks.

d). Computers: shape in all sizes and types are linked by a telecommunication network in order to perform information processing tasks. For example, a mainframe computer can act as the host computer, the extensive network, equipped with a medium scale computer, which acts as a front-end processor (Frond-end), while the microcomputer can act as a network server on a small network.

e). Software control of telecommunications: consists of programs that control communication activities, and manage the functions of telecommunications networks. Examples include all kinds of network management programs, such as telecommunications monitor, to the host computer, mainframe, network operating systems, for network servers, and Web browsers for microcomputers.

No matter how large or complex, jaringanelekomunikasi, in this world, the five basic categories of these components must be present to support the activities of the telecommunications organization. It is a conceptual framework that you can use to help you understand the various types of telecommunications networks in use today.

Friday, January 11, 2013

Using Internet Business

Internet Business Value

How many companies that received the business value of the Internet for E-Commerce. The cost savings are substantial, can diperleh for applications that use the Internet, and Internet-based technologies (such as intranets and extranets) cheaper to dkembangkan, run, and maintain than a traditional system. For example, American Airlines save money every time pelangganmenggunakan Web site, not their phone system support.
Sources of other businesses, including the acquisition of new customers, with products and marketing, innovative, and retain customers, now with improved support, and customer service. Of course, increased revenue, through the application of E-Commerce is the main source of business value. Mostly, the company built a Web site E-Business and E-Commerce, in order to achieve six major business value, namely:

a. Generate new revenue from online berlualan.
b. Reduce transaction costs through online sales and customer support.
c. Attract new customers through advertising and web marketing as well as selling online.
d. Increase customer loyalty through improved customer support and service sites.
e. Developing new markets Web-based, and distribution channels for existing products.
f. Develop information-based products balls that can be accessed on the Web.

Intranet Business Value

All types of organizations are implementing intranet usage. One way to manage enterprise intranet application is to classify that, conceptually, into a few categories of service users, which shows the basic services offered by the intranet users. How applications, the intranet can be combined with the resources, the existing information system, and extended to customers, suppliers, and business partners via the Internet and extranets.

Communication and Collaboration: Intranet can significantly improve communication and collaboration within the enterprise.
Web Publication; Advantages development, and publication of documents mutimedia, a hyperlink to the hypermedia database that can be accessed on the World Wide Web server has been shifted to the corporate Intranet.
Management and Business Operations; Intranet is not just making hypermedia information available on the Web server, or send it to the user, through a broadcast network.

Extranet Business Value.

Eksranet Role; when companies use Internet technology opens (extranet) to improve communication with customers and partners, companies can gain many competitive advantages, in developing products business, cost savings, marketing, distribution, and increased partnerships.
Extranet business value obtained from several factors. First, extranet Web browser technology makes Web customers and suppliers to access intranet resources more easily and faster than the old method of business. Second, extranet enables the company to a new interactive Web services for their business partners. So, the extranet is another way for businesses to build or strengthen relationships with strategic suppliers pelanggandan. In addition, the extranet enabling and improving business cooperation with customers and other business partners. Extranets facilitate product development, marketing, and customer-focused processes in interactive and online, which can produce products that are designed to be marketed better and faster.

Telecommunication Network Business Value.

Telecommunication Network Business Value.

Business value of what is obtained when the company, using telecommunications trends, we have identified? The use of the internet, extranet, intranet, and other telecommunications networks to reduce costs, shorten processing time business, supporting E-Commerce, improve cooperation working group, develop operational processes online, resource sharing, locking subscriber and suppliers, as well as developing services, and new products. This makes the application more strategic and vital telecommunications for businesses that must keep looking carabaru to compete well in the domestic market, as well as in the global market.

Internet Revolution

The rapid growth of the Internet is a revolutionary phenomenon, in computing and telecommunications. The Internet has become a network, the largest, and most important of the current network, and evolved, becoming the global information highway. Internet increasingly widespread, as more and more businesses, organizations, computers, and networks that join the global Web. Thousands of business networking, education, and research at this time, millions of interconnected computer systems and users in over 200 countries. For example, users of the internet, around the world is estimated at between 580 million and 655 million people in 2002, with an estimated 710 million to 945 million internet users, in 2004.

The Internet has no center or center kompuer telecommunications. Every message sent has a unique address code, so any internet server, it can get sent to the purpose. In addition, the internet does not have a central office, or a regulatory body. Group of individuals and corporate members, to International standards and advice, just as the Internet Society ( and the World Wide Web Consortium (, promoting the use of the Internet and develop new communication standards. This standard is the key to the free flow of messages between different computers, and networks, in many organizations, and Internet Servive Providers (ISPs) and systems.

Apikasi Internet

The most popular applications on the Internet, is email, instant messaging, browsing websites on the World Wide Web, and participate in newsgroups and chat rooms. Internet email message usually arrives within a few seconds or a few minutes, in some countries, and may be, for data files, text, fax, and video. Software such as Internet browsers, Nescape Navigator and Internet Explorer, and other browsers, allowing millions of users to surf, on the World Wide Web with the click of multimedia information sources, stored in a variety of business pages, government, and other Web sites that are interconnected. Web site offers, information and entertainment, as well as E-Commerce website transactions between businesses and emasok, as well as customers.

Thursday, January 10, 2013

Technology Trends

Technology Trends

Open systems, with limited connectivity, which uses the Internet network technology, as the basis of technology, is now a prime mover of telecommunications technology. The device web browser, HTML Web page editor, and ITerNet intranet server and network management software, network products TCP / IP, network security and firewalls are just a few examples. This technology is being applied in the application of extranet, intranet and internet, especially for e-commerce and cooperation. This trend has supported the long technical and industry towards the development of the client / server-based open systems.

An open system is a system of information using common standards, for hardware, software, applications, and networks. An open system, such as the internet, extranet, and intranet enterprise, creating a computing environment, which is open to easily accessible by the end user and computer systems, networked. Open systems provide greater connectivity, the ability to network computers, and other tools, to be able to easily access and communicate with each other, and share information. System architecture, open systems, also provides network functions efectivitas steeper rate. Meaning is an open system that allows a variety of different applications from the end user bedan solved by using a variety of computer systems, software packages and databases, provided by a variety of networks, which are interconnected. Often, software called Midddleware, can be used to help the different systems to work together.

Telecommunications also been revolutionized, through rapid change, from analog technology to digital network technology. Telecommunications system, always depend on analog transmission systems, voice-oriented, designed to send electrical frequency, variable produced by the sound waves of the human voice. However, local and global telecommunications networks, is undergoing conversion to digital transmission technology, which sends information in the form of discrete pulses, as is done by the computer. It provides:

1). Transmission speed is significantly large,
2). The movement of information in larger quantities,
3). Greater economic,
4). Lower error rate than analog systems.

In addition, digital technology allows, telecommunications networks to perform, various types of communications (data, voice, video) at the same sircuit.

Other major trends in telecommunications technology, is a change of dependency, the copper wire-based media and shortwave reception, ground-based, the fiber-optic lines and cellular, PCS, satellite communications and other wireless technologies. Optical fiber transmission, which uses pulses of laser light, offers benefits, significant, in the business of installation, and smaller size, communication kapatas a much larger, much faster transmission speed, and freedom from electrical interference. Satellite transmission offers significant advantages for organizations that need to send large amounts of data, audio, and video, in a global network, particularly to isolated areas. PCS and cellular phones, PDAs, and other wireless devices connect the PCS and cellular phones, PDAs and other wireless devices to the Internet and corporate networks.

Trends in Business Applications

Changes in technology and telecommunications industries just mentioned cause significant changes in the use of telecommunications in the business world. The trend toward more suppliers, services, technology, internet, and ssitem open, and rapid growth, the Internet, World Wide Web, as well as ikstranet, and the corporate intranet, dramatically increasing the number of telecommunication applications that can be used. As a result, today, telecommunications networks, play an important and expanding role in the process of Web-based E-Business, E-Commerce, enterprise collaboration, and other business applications, which supports strategic objectives, and operational management in both large corporations and companies small.

Tuesday, January 8, 2013

Telecommunication Networks - Networking Company

Form a network within the Company.

Telecommunications and networking technology works by using the Internet and revolutionize business and society. Business has become a networked, Internet, Web, intranets and extranets to form a network of business processes and employees together, and connect them with customers, suppliers and other related parties. Companies and working groups can work together more creatively, manage operations bisns this is fast changing.

Trends in Telecommunication.
Telecommunications adlah exchange of information in any form (voice, data, text, images, audio, video) through a computer-based network. Trends occurring in the field of telecommunications has a significant impact on management decisions in this field. Therefore, you should know the major trends in the telecommunications industry, technology, and applications that significantly improve the alternatives to the professionals and business managers.

Monday, January 7, 2013

Technical Fundamentals of Database Management

Database management

Just imagine how difficult it is to get information from the information system, if data is stored in an irregular manner, or if there is no systematic way to pull data. Hence, in an information system, data resources must be organized and structured in a logical way so that they can be easily accessed, processed efficiently, quickly withdrawn, and managed effectively. Thus, the method of data structures and data access, ranging from a simple to complex, has been established to be able to efficiently manage and access data stored by information systems. This section will explore these concepts, as well as other concepts are more technical than a database management.

Database structure.

The relationship between the various elements are stored in separate data daatabase based on one of the few structures or logical data models. Software DBMS (Database Management System) is designed to use specific data structures in order to give the end user quick and easy access to the information stored in the database. Five basic structure of the database includes model hierarchical, network, relational, object-oriented, and multidimensional.
Hierarchical structure; DBMS software,. Early use of hierarchical structure, which makes the relationship anatar notes forming a hierarchical or tree-like structure. In the traditional hierarchical model, all cartatan are dependent, and is set in a multi-level structure, composed of the root note and a number of subordinate levels.
Network structure;  tissue structures to represent more complex logical relationships, and is still used by some mainframe DBMS software. This structure allows a many-to-many relationship between records, in other words, the model of the network can access the data elements to follow one of several paths, as elements of the data or any record can be linked to many other data elements.
Relational structures; models Realational model is the most widely used of the three structures database. This model is used by most DBMS software, microcomputers, and medium-scale systems and mainframes. In the relational models, all data elements are stored in the database is seen in the form of simple tables.
Multidimensional structures; multidimensional database structure is a variation of the relational models that use multidimensional structures to organize data and present relationships between data.Anda can visualize multidimensional structures as boxes and boxes of data in a data grid. Each side of the box is considered as a dimension of the data.
Object-oriented data structures; model object-oriented database is considered to be one of the key technologies of the new generation of Web-based multimedia applications.

Data Resource Management

Data are important resources of an organization, which need to be managed, such as managing critical assets, in other businesses. Currently, it can not survive or succeed without quality data, the internal operations and their external environment.
This is why many organizations and managers need to practice the management of data resources, that is a managerial activity that applies information technology systems, such as data base management, data warehouse and other data management tasks to manage an organization's data resources in order to meet the information needs oihak-parties with an interest in their business. In this post I will show you, the implications menegerial self, using technology, and resource management data organization, in order to meet the information needs of the business.

Fundamentals of Data Concepts.

Character; logical elements most basic data is character, consisting of a letter, number, or other symbol. One could argue that the bits (byte) of data elements that are more basic, but bear in mind that the term refers to the physical storage elements provided by the computer hardware. 
Field; subsequent; higher level of data is a field, or a piece of data. A field consists of a group of interconnected characters. For example, the character of the letters in a person's name to form field names, (or usually, field, last name, first name, middle name and acronym) and the grouping of figures in the number of sales will form field sales amount. In particular data field represents an attribute (a characteristic or quality) of some entities (objects, people, places, and events). For example, the salary of an employee is a commonly used field data, which describes, an employee entity.
Note; Fields interconnected grouped for Formatting a note. So a record represents a collection of attributes that describe the entity. For example cantatan payroll for someone to explain various attributes, names numbers and rates.
File; interconnected group of records is called a data file, or table. Thus, the employee file will contain a record of the various employees of a company. For example: payroll files, document files and graphic image files.
Database; is an integrated collection of data elements are logically interconnected. Database consolidate various records formerly stored in separate files combined into one common data elements that provide data for many applications.

Types of Database.
Ongoing developments in information technology and applications normally have produced some kind of evolution of the primary database.
Data base of operations; Stores detailed data needed to support business processes and operations of a company. Database operations are also referred to as the area is called database (SADB), database transactions (transaction database) and the production database (production database).
Distributed Databases; Many organizations replicate and distribute a variety of copy or part of the database to the server network into various sites. Distributed databases can be housed in a server network World Wide Web, on corporate intranets and extranets, or on other company networks.
External Database; access to rich information from an external database is available free of with or without, the cost of the many sources from the World Wide Web. Web site provides an endless variety of types of pages hyperlinked multimedia documents in a hypermedia database for your access.

Sunday, January 6, 2013

Application Software: Application to End Users.

Introduction of the Software

Overview of the various main types of software, where you work with computers, and will also discuss the various characteristics and their purpose and give some examples of the use of them. Before we begin, let's see an example of software in the business world is always changing.

Software Business Applications
Thousands of special software, available to support specific end-user applications, in business and other fields. For example, software applications supporting business reengineering, and business process automation, with a strategic e-business applications, such as Customer Relationship Management (CRM), Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), and Supply Chain Management (SCM). Other example is the software that can be operated on the Web, such as E-Commerce, or in various functional areas such as Human Resource Management, Accounting and Finance. There are still other software that empowers business managers and praktisis with decision support tools, such as data mining, enterprise information portals, or Knowledge Management System.
We will not discuss in detail the applications mentioned here, but yet we discuss next, on a variety of software and business applications. For example in our next post we will discuss Data Warehousing, Data transfer, application accounting, marketing, production, human resources and financial management, and customer relationship management, enterprise resource planning, supply chain management, E-Commerce and Decision Support Systems . All we will discuss in the next post.

Suite Software and Integrated Package
Let's begin our discussion of the general application software known by looking at the various Suite Software. This was done because of productivity software, the most widely used, put together a suite of software, such as Microsoft Office, Lotus Smart Suite, Corel Word Perfect Office and Star Office from Sun, studying the components they gave us an overview of the software tools important that you can use to enhance your productivity.
A software suite cost is much cheaper than the total cost of buying the software in them separately. Another plus is that all programs using the Graphical User Interface (GUI) which is almost identical to the symbol tools, line status, and so on, which gives them the look and taste the same, and make them easier to learn and use. Software Suite as well as various tools like spell checker, and a wizard to help improve their efficiency. Other major advantages is the suite of programs, designed to work together without being seen and import each file with ease, no matter what program you're using at the moment. This capability makes the suite more efficient and easier to use than using different types of software version separately.
Of course, putting so many programs and features together in a large super-sized pack has beberpa weakness. Critics of the industry argue that the world has many features in the software suite is never used by most end users. The suites are taking a lot of places, from 100 megabytes to 150 megabytes over, tegantung on which version or which function you install. Thus, such software sometimes, jokingly, referred to by detractors developer tools. The cost of the suite can vary from the low of $ 100 for the full version of some of the suite editions. These weaknesses is one of the reasons for the continued use of an integrated package such as Microsoft Works, Lotus e-Suite Workplace, AppleWorks, and others.

Saturday, January 5, 2013

Computer Systems: End User and Company Computing

Hardware analysis

All computers, is a system of input, processing, output, storage, and control. We will discuss the trends, applications, and some of the basic concepts of various types of computer systems in use today. We will also discuss the changing technologies for input, output, and storage is provided by peralatanperiferal that is part of modern computer systems.

Types of Computer Systems.
Nowadays, computer systems are available in a variety of channels, shapes and computing capabilities. Development of hardware and software is very fast and the changing needs of end-users continue to encourage the emergence of a new computer model, from a combination cell phone / PDA with a very small size to multi-CPU mainframe to a very large company.
Categories such as mainframe systems, medium scale, and microcomputers are used to help us expedite the processing power and the number of end users that can be supported by various types of computer .. However, this is not klasisfikasi very different from each other, but still overlap. Thus, other names usually given to mention the usefulness of a particular type of computer. For example, a personal computer and technical work.

Computer Networks,
Network Computer (NC), is a category of microcomputers designed with the Internet and corporate intranets by administrative staff, pengawai operations, and other staff who have special computer skills or limited. NC is a low-cost microcomputers, secure, and form a network with no or minimal disk storage. Users NC depending on the intranet and internet servers to Web browsers and operating systems, software applications, as well as the access and storage of data.
One of the most intersting of the computer network is the low cost of purchase, renewal, maintenance, and support when compared to a full-featured PC. Other advantage for the business include ease of distribution and licensing of software, computing platforms standardization, reduction of support requirements for the end user, and improve the management of melaluimanagemen centralization and control the company's computer network resources.

Information Appliances,

Microcomputer equipment of only a handful hand, personal digital assistant (PDA), is the most popular tools for information appliances category. PDAs, Web-enabled using the touch screen, pen-based handwriting recognition or keypad, so that employees who travel frequently, you can send and receive email, access the Web site, and the exchange of information, such as planning meetings, things to do, and sales contracts with their desktop PCs, or Web server.
The information appliances can also take the form of video games and other tools related to TV. These tools allow you to surf the World Wide Web or send and receive email, and watching TV or playing video games, at the same time. Other information equipment, including wireless PDAs and mobile phones, which can be connecting to the internet, and telephone-based home appliances, which can send and receive emails, and access the Web site
Computer Terminal,
Computer Terminal, is undergoing a massive conversion to the network computer equipment. Dumb terminals, namely keyboards, monitors with limited processing capability, but replaced with smart terminals, networks of computers that have been modified. Also includes a network terminal, which can be a Windows terminal, which relies on a network server for Windows software, processing power, and storage, or internet terminal, which relies on the Internet or intranet Web site server for operating systems and applications-software.
Smart Terminal, has many forms, and can perform data entry and processing tasks, information independently. This includes the use of a fairly wide range of terminal transactions in banks, retail stores, factories, and other workplaces. For example, Automated Teller Machine (ATM), a tape recorder factory production, and the terminal point of sale in retail stores. Smart terminals using the keypad, touch screen, item code scanner, and other input methods, to capture data, and interact with the end user, during the transaction, while controlling servers or computers in a network Lanya for further transaction processing

Business Process Re-Engineering

One of the most important implementations of competitive strategy is business-process reengineering. (BPR)., Often referred to only as reengineering. Re-engineering is the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve the dramatic improvements in cost, quality, speed, and service. Thus, BPR combines a strategy to Promote business innovation with a strategy to make a huge improvement over the company's business processes in order to become much stronger and become a more successful competitor in the marketplace.

While the potential benefits of engineering is high, there is also the risk of failure and the level of disruption of the organization. Undertake radical change business processes to dramatically improve the efficiency and effectiveness is no easy task. For example, many companies use software Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) functional to reengineer, automate, and integrate the process of manufacturing, distribution, finance, and human resources. While many companies have reported impressive gains with engineering projects through the ERP, many are failing or have failed to achieve dramatic improvements they're after.

Making an agile enterprise; Agility in business performance is the ability of the company to prosper in a rapidly changing global marketplace and continually fragmented for products and services of high quality, good performance, and tailored to the customer. Agile company that can make a profit in a market with a broad product selection and bermasa short lived, and can produce orders individually and with a great amount. The company supports mass customization by offering individualized products while maintaining high production volumes. An agile company relies heavily on Internet technologies to integrate and manage business processes, while providing the processing power of information to serve many customers individual.

There are four basic strategies that should be implemented to become a lincah.Pertama, customers of the company whose products and services considered agile as a solution to their individual problems. So, the price of the product can be determined based on its value as a solution, not based on the cost of production. Second, agile company working with customers, suppliers, and other companies, even competitors. This allows the company to market the product quickly and efficient, no matter where the resources are and whoever owns them. Third, a nimble company can survive when there is a change and uncertainty. The Company uses a flexible organizational structure to fit the ever changing customer opportunities and different. Fourth, nimble companies that can increase the impact of human resources and knowledge they have. In the spirit of maintaining an entrepreneurial spirit, nimble company that can provide a high incentive for responsibility, adaptability, and innovation employees.

Creating Virtual Company; In a dynamic global business environment today, the formation of virtual enterprise can be one of the most important strategic use of information technology. Virtual enterprise (also called virtual corporation or virtual organizations) is an organization that uses information technology to connect people, organizations, assets and ideas.

Building a company to generate knowledge; For many companies today, lasting competitive advantage can only be owned by them, if they should they become a company that can produce knowledge or organizational learning. This means consistently creating new business knowledge, disseminate it widely throughout the organization, and to quickly construct new knowledge into products and services.

Companies that can produce knowledge using two kinds of knowledge. The first is explicit knowledge, ie, data, documents, everything that is written or stored in a computer. Type these is implicit knowledge, which is knowledge of "how to do something", which is within the workers.
Knowledge Management Systems; Management knowledge is to be one of the major strategic use of information technology. Many companies build a knowledge management system (KMS) to manage organizational learning and ways of doing business. The purpose of this system is to help workers create \ set and making available important business knowledge, wherever and whenever it is needed in the organization. This includes a variety of processes, procedures and patents, employment references, formulas, "best practices", prediction and improvement.

Building a Customer Focused Business

For many companies, the value of their primary business to be customer-focused business lies in their ability to retain customers it loyal, anticipate future needs, respond to customer concerns, and are providing high berkuatitas customer service. Focus on customer value strategy recognizes that quality, not price, has been a major determinant in customer perception of the value. From the customer's point of view, companies that consistently offer the best value able to track the preferences of each customer, following the market trend, the supply of products, services and information, anytime, anywhere, and provide customer service tailored to the needs of each customer. Besides Internet technology has created strategic opportunities for companies, large and small, to offer services and products that are fast, responsive, and high quality are adjusted to each customer's preference.
Internet technology can make the customer be the focal point of customer relationship management (CRM), e-business and other applications. . System's CRM system, the Internet, intranets and extranets. creating new channels for interactive communication within a company and its customers, and with suppliers, business partners and others in the external environment. This allows continuous interaction with customers to most business functions and encourage cross-functional cooperation with its customers in terms of product development, marketing, delivery, service and technical support.

Typically, customers use the Internet to make a complaint asking questions, evaluating the product, ask for support, and create and report on their purchases. By using the Internet and corporate intranets, experts in a variety of business functions in all enterprise dapatmemberi contributions of an effective response. This prompted the creation of cross-functional group discussion and problem-solving team formed by the involvement of subscriber, service and support to customers. Even Intrernet and intranet support to our suppliers and business partners can be used to register them in a certain way in order to ensure the shipment on time or range of components and quality services to meet the company's commitment to its customers. This is how the business shows focus on value for customers.
Relationships ilustration in customer-focused business. Intranet, extranet, e-Commerce websites and internal business processes that run over the Web, established IT platform does not seem to support this model of e-Business. This allows the business to focus on targeting the types of customers they really want, and "own" the entire experience with the company's business customers. Businesses that successfully facilitate all business processes that impact their customers with a complete view of each customer, so they have the information they need to offer their customers high quality services tailored to each customer. Business that focuses on helping customers in their e-commerce customers to help themselves to themselves., With ttap help customers do their work. Finally, businesses that successfully nurture online communities of customers, employees, and business partners, which may help the development of cooperation to provide a memorable experience for the customer.

Compete Using Information Technology.

Fundamentals of Strategic Advantage.
Strategic IT; is important for you to see not only the information system as a set of technologies that support business operations, working groups and companies that work together efficiently or to take effective decisions. Information technology can change the way many businesses competitive. So you have to look at a strategic information system, which is an important competitive network, making way for a renewal of the organization and as an important investment in technology that can help companies adopt a strategic and business processes that enable it to reverse or change themselves in order to survive and succeed this is in today's business environment is dynamic.
Competitive Strategy Concepts; concept Competitive Strategy will create a Strategic Information Systems, information systems that support or shape posisikompetitif and strategies of the business enterprise. So the strategic information system can be any information system (TPS, MIS, DSS, etc.) that use information technology to help organizations gain competitive advantage, reduce competitive disadvantage, or to meet other corporate strategic objectives.

Use of Information Technology Strategy

a). Cost Leadership Strategy; Being a manufacturer of products and services that are low cost in the industry. In addition, companies can find ways to help suppliers or customers reduce their costs or increase the cost of its competitors.
b). Strategy Diferensasi; Developing ways to differentiate products and services from its competitors or competitors differentiation advantage.
c). Innovation Strategy; Finding new ways to do business. This may involve the development of a variety of products and services that are unique, or enter into, market or niche market is unique.
d). Growth Strategy; Significantly expands the company's ability to produce goods and services, expand into global markets, diversify products and services or integrated, into the related products and services.
e). Strategic Alliance; Creating new business relationships and alliances with customers, suppliers, competitors, consultants and other companies. This relationship can be include mergers, acquisitions, joint ventures, forming a "virtual company" or marketing agreement, between a manufacturing or distribution business with its trading partners.